# Photon Structure

Resolution of the Wave-Particle Duality

Rotating binary positronic and negatronic components generate a wave propagating at the speed of light

(Photon Structure - Resolution of the Wave-Particle Duality, Published Dec. 10, 1979 by Timothy Edward Long)

Supersymmetry: Matter is formed when the photon (gammaray) energy exceeds Pair Formation threshold energy of 1.0216 MeV (see Matter from Light graphic on link below).

As photons are guage bosons, photons of this energy have this special "creation" mechanism, where electron mass

and positron mass are created simultaneously.

Some of the pairs recombine in the annihilation process but others would separate into free electrons and positrons which could act in electric currents, or become atomic components.

Pair Formation of 1.0216 MeV Gammaray Photon Structure provides a physical mechanism for the propagation of light while describing why a specific wavelength is associated with a specific quantum of energy. A dramatic example can be found in the pair formation, or "creation" mechanism of the 1.0216 MeV ("pair formation threshold") gammaray which will decay into an electron (negatron) and a positron.

Conversely, and even more intriguing, is the "annihilation" process whereby an electron and a positron merge, transforming into two gammarays, each of one-half threshold gammaray energy and traveling in opposite directions due to conservation of energy and momentum. These processes alone provide the basic observational proof for the existence of this structural mechanism. Two oppositely charged particles (positronic and negatronic components, or partons) are attracted by their charges. Plasma research at Los Alamos, N.M. and other facilities have demonstrated that the oppositely charged particles' forces act at right angles resulting in a rotational motion that translates linearly. (This, by the way, is the same force that propagates an electron along a conductor, which provides the oppositely charged component.) The "right-hand rule" interaction of the oppositely charged

particles locks the orbital radius of the pair into a specific wavelength, due to the centrifugal force provided by the rotation, balanced with the opposite charges' attraction.
Photon Decay (entropy) accounts for the universal red shift. Rather than the Big Bang, creation results from anomolous constructive interference of electromagnetic radiation, from the longest wavelength and lowest energy through the spectrum until pair formation creates beta particles which aggregate into atoms.
The mass (and charge) of the Proton is one electron less than the Neutron. Aggregates of Positron-Electron pairs (+/- beta particle pairs) create Neutrons and Protons rather than the eightfold way of QCD's fractional charges.

The Pauli Exclusion Principle is due to Positron-Electron pairs completing electron shell orbitals. (The ratio of the radius of the Electron-Positron pairs to the Hydrogen atom radius is known as the Fine Structure Constant.) Thus, the anti-matter universe is within us, balanced in a mutually attractive (due to charge) and repulsive (due to centrifugal force from the 'right hand rule' interaction of the charged particles) structure which locks each of the photon's components into a specifically defined orbital radius (This is the fundamental physical interaction from which all other forces are derived; and it generates the forces of motion and change in relative positions for the referential system we refer to as "Time"). Any charge imbalance in the atom results in reactivity --- otherwise, this resultant microgravity prevails.

The velocity of light can be viewed as the "characteristic velocity" of electromagnetic radiation and NOT an upperbound

to possible velocities. Proof of this can be shown by the equality of photon momentum and binary orbital momentum

calculations for a specific energy photon; and is exemplified by "light pressure." (see Photon Structure, by T. E. Long)

Numerical equivalence of the Fresnel Dragging Coefficient and the relativistic velocity calculation of special

relativity show that Newtonian mechanics operates at the sub-quantal level and NOT the wormholes postulated

for scales less than E-35 meter by Q.M. (See groundbreaking work on Scale by Dr. Philip Morrison.) Smaller

scale structures are continuously ordering, anentropicly, the ever-larger-scale universe. Probabilistic indeterminacy

is due to the mathematical statistics used to describe Q.M. and does not represent the deterministic forces that

underlie nature at ever smaller scales. Alfred Lande's mathematical "Uncertainty Analysis" describes

indeterminism as metrological limits on the accuracy achievable in physical measurements. Deterministic non-linear
"Chaos" theory demonstrates how repetitive motion appears to be random over time.

Dark Matter: The massive subcomponents of the photon do not cancel to a mass of zero due to opposite signs,

which only relates to their charges. The vanishingly small masses which were defined as zero are actually

"definite absolutes" which add to one another, as the total magnitude of the electron and positron energy equal

the total energy of the threshhold gammaray from which they were formed, 1.0216 MeV. (Also see "The Mass of

the Photon," by Alfred Goldhaber and Michael Nieto in the May 1976 issue of Scientific American.) The apparent

acceleration of the "Big Bang expansion" is, rather, an indication that the rate that photons lose energy as they travel

across the universe is greater than a velocity corresponding to a constant or decelerating velocity calculated by

interpreting the red shift as a Doppler shift. The negatronic and positronic components rotating clockwise at the
velocity of light, c, exhibit an unusual characteristic because when the vector for each component is added to the forward velocity, the vectors add for the upper component and subtract for the lower one (CW rotation). This "subtracted" quantity , negative helicity , results in the "Fresnel Dragging Coefficient" and is equivalent to the relativistic transformation, sans baggage (i.e., c as maximal velocity, spacetime). It was originally attributed to "aether drag" in aether theory.

References: Frazer, William, "The Photon Structure - Will It Test QCD At Present Energies?" Fourth International Colloquium on Photon-Photon Interactions, World scientific, Singapore, 1981.
Freedman, Stuart; Holt, Richard and Papaliolios, Costas, "Experimental Status of Hidden Variable Theories," Quantum Mechanics, Determinism,Causality and Particles, ed. by Flato, M. et al, D. reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, Holland, 1976.
Gamow, George, Thirty years that Shook Physics, Doubleday & Co., 1966.
Goldhaber, Alfred and Nieto, Michael, "The Mass of the Photon," Scientific American, May 1976.
Hubble, Edwin, "The Exploration of Space," Theories of the Universe, ed. by Munitz, M.K., The Free Press, Il., 1957. Jenkins, Francis and White, Harvey, Fundamentals of Optics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976.
Lande, Alfred, From Dualism to Unity in Quantum Mechanics, Cambridge, 1960.
Long, Timothy E., Photon Structure: Resolution of the Wave-Particle Duality, Maaret DeGroff, N.M., 1979.
Long, Timothy E., The Status of the Light Principle in the Foundations of Special Relativity Theory, University of

New Mexico, 1985, UMI, 1986. Perkins, W.A., "Neutrino Theory of Photons," Physical Review, Vol. 137, No. 5B, March 8, 1965.