Photon Structure
Resolution of the Wave-Particle Duality

Supersymmetry:  The mass (and charge) of the Proton is one electron less than the Neutron. Aggregates of Positron-Electron pairs create Neutrons and Protons rather than the eightfold way of QCD's fractional charges.

The Pauli Exclusion Principle is due to Positron-Electron pairs completing electron shell orbitals. (The ratio of the radius of the

Electron-Positron pairs to the Hydrogen atom radius is known as the Fine Structure Constant.) Thus, the anti-matter universe is

within us, balanced in a mutually attractive (due to charge) and repulsive (due to centrifugal force from the 'right hand rule'

interaction of the charged particles) structure which locks each of the photon's components into a specifically defined orbital

radius (This is the fundamental physical interaction from which all other forces are derived; and it generates the forces of motion

and change in relative positions for the referential system we refer to as "Time").  Any charge imbalance in the atom results in

reactivity --- otherwise, this resultant microgravity prevails.


When an electron and positron "annihilate" there are two gammarays formed by the rotating dipoles, each with one-half threshold gammray energy and traveling in opposite directions (due to conservation of energy and momentum). 

The velocity of light can be viewed as the "characteristic velocity" of electromagnetic radiation and NOT
an upper bound to possible velocities. Proof of this can be shown by the equality of photon momentum
and binary orbital momentum calculations for a specific energy photon; and is exemplified by "light pressure."
(see Photon Structure, by T. E. Long)

Numerical equivalence of the Fresnel Dragging Coefficient and the relativistic velocity calculation of special
relativity show that Newtonian mechanics operates at the sub-quantal level and NOT the wormholes postulated
for scales less than E-35 meter by Q.M. (See groundbreaking work on Scale by Dr. Philip Morrison.)   Smaller
scale structures are continuously ordering, anentropicly, the ever larger scale universe. Probabilistic indeterminacy
is due to the mathematical statistics used to describe Q.M. and does not represent the deterministic forces that
underlie nature at ever smaller scales.   Alfred Lande's mathematical "Uncertainty Analysis" describes
indeterminism as metrological limits on the accuracy achievable in physical measurements.

Dark Matter: The massive subcomponents of the photon do not cancel to a mass of zero due to opposite signs,
which only relates to their charges. The vanishingly small masses which were defined as zero are actually
"definite absolutes" which add to one another, as the total magnitude of the electron and positron energy equal
the total energy of the threshhold gammaray from which they were formed, 1.0216 MeV. (Also see "The Mass of
the Photon," by Alfred Goldhaber and Michael Nieto in the May 1976 issue of Scientific American.)   The
apparent acceleration of the "Big Bang expansion" is, rather, an indication that the rate that photons lose energy
as they travel across the universe is greater than a velocity corresponding to a constant or decelerating velocity
calculated by interpreting the red shift as a Doppler shift. The negatronic and positronic components rotating clockwise at the velocity of light, c, exhibit an unusual characteristic because when the vector for each component is added to the forward velocity, the vectors add for the upper component and subtract for the lower one (CW rotation). This "subtracted" quantity, negative helicity, results in the "Fresnel Dragging Coefficient" and is equivalent to the relativistic transformation, sans baggage (i.e., c as maximal velocity, spacetime). It was originally attributed to "aether drag" in aether theory.



References: Frazer, William, "The Photon Structure - Will It Test QCD At Present Energies?" Fourth International Colloquium

on Photon-Photon Interactions, World scientific, Singapore, 1981. Freedman, Stuart; Holt, Richard and Papaliolios, Costas,

"Experimental Status of Hidden Variable Theories," Quantum Mechanics, Determinism,Causality and Particles, ed. by Flato,

M. et al, D. reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, Holland, 1976. Gamow, George, Thirty years that Shook Physics, Doubleday &

Co., 1966. Goldhaber, Alfred and Nieto, Michael, "The Mass of the Photon," Scientific American, May 1976. Hubble, Edwin,

"The Exploration of Space," Theories of the Universe, ed. by Munitz, M.K., The Free Press, Il., 1957. Jenkins, Francis and

White, Harvey, Fundamentals of Optics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976. Lande, Alfred, From Dualism to Unity in Quantum

Mechanics, Cambridge, 1960.  Long, Timothy E., Photon Structure: Resolution of the Wave-Particle Duality, Maaret DeGroff,

N.M., 1979.   Long, Timothy E., The Status of the Light Principle in the Foundations of Special Relativity Theory, University of

New Mexico, 1985, UMI, 1986.  Perkins, W.A., "Neutrino Theory of Photons," Physical Review, Vol. 137, No. 5B, March 8,


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